Category Archives: General Surgery

PUBLISHED: Internal Mammary Perforator Preserving Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy (IMP-NSM) to Reduce Ischemic Complications

Internal Mammary Perforator Preserving Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy (IMP-NSM) to Reduce Ischemic Complications
Mardi R. Karin, MDArash Momeni, MDCandice N. Thompson, MD
Stanford University School of Medicine

Nipple-Sparing Mastectomies (NSMs) with breast reconstruction are commonly performed for both breast cancer treatment or risk-reducing prophylactic mastectomies and have superior aesthetic results compared to total mastectomy or skin-sparing mastectomy. Preservation of the Nipple Areolar Complex (NAC) results in a more natural aesthetic appearance of the reconstructed breast, as well as greater patient satisfaction, as indicated by improved psychosocial and sexual well-being compared to total mastectomy. Preservation of vascular supply is of utmost importance for NAC and mastectomy skin flap viability after surgery, since postoperative ischemic complications can significantly undermine the aesthetic outcomes.

This report describes a contemporary NSM surgical technique developed by the senior author (MK), to preserve the dominant NAC vascular supply, and decrease postoperative ischemic complications. A total of 114 NSM were performed from 2018 to 2020 by the senior author. Based on preoperative breast MRI with contrast visualization of the vascular supply to the NAC, the Internal Mammary Perforator (IMP) vessels exiting the pectoralis major muscle at the sternal border were found to provide the dominant blood supply to the NAC in 92% and could be preserved in 89% of cases.

The Internal Mammary Perforator Preserving Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy (IMP-NSM) surgical technique was developed to preserve this important IMP blood supply to the NAC, resulting in decreased postoperative ischemic complications. Following implementation of this surgical technique, NAC necrosis requiring NAC removal occurred in 0.9%, and mastectomy skin necrosis requiring reoperation in 1.8% of cases, resulting in successful NAC preservation in the majority of patients. Furthermore, due to the consistent anatomical location of the IMP vascular supply to the NAC, this critical vascular supply can routinely be preserved even without preoperative MRI, thereby improving clinical outcomes. The IMP-NSM surgical technique is described in detail in this report with a case example.

PUBLISHED: Laparoscopic Sigmoid Resection for Diverticulitis

Laparoscopic Sigmoid Resection for Diverticulitis
Derek J. Erstad, MDDavid Berger, MD
Massachusetts General Hospital

Laparoscopic sigmoid resection is indicated for disease of the distal sigmoid or rectum that requires resection, most notably diverticulitis and colorectal cancer. Here, we perform a sigmoid resection for diverticular disease. In this procedure, we used four laparoscopic port sites.

In the first step, we mobilized the splenic flexure and left colon to allow for a tension-free colorectal anastomosis low in the pelvis. Second, the mesorectum was dissected to mobilize the rectum down to the level of the pelvic floor. Third, the left colic and inferior mesenteric arteries were ligated, the colonic mesentery was transected with an energy device, and the distal resection margin was stapled intracorporeally. Fourth, the specimen was extracorporealized through the umbilical port site, and the proximal transection was performed. Finally, an anvil was inserted, and the colon was placed back into the abdomen where a trans-anal, stapled end-to-side Baker-type anastomosis was performed and endoscopically tested for leaks.

PUBLISHED: Recipient Kidney Transplant from a Living Donor

Recipient Kidney Transplant from a Living Donor
Maggie L. Westfal, MD, MPHNahel Elias, MD, FACS
Massachusetts General Hospital

End stage renal disease (ESRD) is the final stage in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD has a multitude of etiologies, presents in a variety of ways, and progresses in a patient-dependent manner. Despite the heterogeneity of CKD, once ESRD ensues, patients require Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT). RRT is one of three prongs: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or kidney transplant.

Of these, kidney transplantation provides the patient with the best quality of life, an improved survival, and an opportunity for cure. However, the success of kidney transplantation with improved outcomes and tolerance to the required immunosuppression has led to an extreme organ shortage despite the increase in deceased organ donors. As a result, the push for living donors has become increasingly more important.

For recipients, the best outcomes are with transplants from a living donor due to superior graft quality and elimination of the need for waiting and dialysis. This article will present such a case and discuss the important considerations a physician must make preoperatively and intraoperatively when performing kidney transplantations.

PUBLISHED: Robotic Heineke-Mikulicz Pyloroplasty for Pyloric Stenosis

Robotic Heineke-Mikulicz Pyloroplasty for Pyloric Stenosis
Jonathan Durgin, MD; Emily Mackey, MDNicole Cherng, MD
UMass Memorial Medical Center

Pyloric stenosis resulting in gastric outlet obstruction can present with nausea, vomiting, and early satiety. Imaging including fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal series and computed tomography can diagnose gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy is included in the work-up to visualize the extent of stenosis and to obtain a tissue biopsy. After a malignancy is ruled out, treatment involves management of underlying causes.

This may include acid suppression, treatment of H. pylori, and dietary modification. Patients who fail conservative management may benefit from endoscopic therapies including pneumatic dilation and botulinum toxin injection. However, these therapies may not offer lasting symptomatic relief.

Pyloroplasty can be performed with the goal of widening the pylorus to improve gastric emptying. Pyloroplasty can be accomplished through open, laparoscopic, and robotic techniques. Here we describe a robotic-assisted Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty in an adult patient with benign pyloric stenosis.

PUBLISHED: Rives-Stoppa Retromuscular Repair for Incisional Hernia

Rives-Stoppa Retromuscular Repair for Incisional Hernia
Katherine Albutt, MD; Peter Fagenholz, MD
Massachusetts General Hospital

There is no consensus on the optimal method of ventral hernia repair, and the choice of techniques is typically dictated by a combination of patient factors and surgeon expertise. Component separation techniques allow medial advancement of the rectus abdominis muscle to create a midline tension-free fascial closure.

In this case, we describe a posterior component separation with retrorectus mesh placement, also known as a Rives-Stoppa retromuscular repair. With low morbidity and mortality, this technique provides a durable repair with low rates of recurrence and surgical site infection while providing dynamic muscle support and physiologic tension, preventing eventration, and allowing incorporation of mesh into the existing abdominal wall.

PUBLISHED: Open Cholecystectomy for Gallstone Disease

Open Cholecystectomy for Gallstone Disease
Liborio “Jun” Soledad, MDEnrico Jayma, MDTed Carpio, MD
World Surgical Foundation

Gallstone disease is one of the most common disorders affecting the digestive tract. Most individuals with gallstones are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. For symptomatic patients, however, cholecystectomy is recommended.

Cholecystectomy is one of the most common abdominal surgeries performed worldwide. Indications include moderate-to-severe symptoms, stones obstructing the bile duct, gallbladder inflammation, large gallbladder polyps, and pancreatic inflammation due to gallstones.

Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old male with stones in his biliary duct. Despite having uncomplicated disease, the patient was treated with a primary open cholecystectomy because laparoscopy was not available.

PUBLISHED: Anal Examination Under Anesthesia with Abscess Drainage and Evaluation for Fistula

Anal Examination Under Anesthesia with Abscess Drainage and Evaluation for Fistula
Jennifer Shearer, MDBrooke Gurland, MD, FACS
Stanford University School of Medicine

Anorectal abscesses most commonly result from obstruction of glandular crypts in the anorectal canal. Abscesses are commonly diagnosed by clinical exam with fluctuance, induration, and tenderness around the perianal tissue.

Abscesses are managed with incision and drainage. For superficial perianal abscesses, bedside lancing can be performed, but for more complex or ischiorectal or postanal abscess, examination under anesthesia in the operating room is preferred. Complete evacuation of the abscess with breakdown of loculated abscess pockets is critical to fully control the infection. Drains may also be left in a deep abscess pocket to prevent the skin prematurely closing before the cavity has healed.

Imaging is selectively performed with CT or MRI to identify occult infections or further identify proximal extent of abscess cavity or associated fistula. For recurrent abscesses, associated fistula tracts should also be identified and, if possible, treated intraoperatively. Antibiotics are utilized for patients with cellulitis or those who are immunosuppressed. This video article presents an adult male with recurrent anorectal abscesses with a new anterior abscess collection, which was managed with anal exam under anesthesia with incision and drainage of abscess collection and drain placement.

PUBLISHED: Anal Examination Under Anesthesia and Botox Injection for Chronic Anal Fissures

Anal Examination Under Anesthesia and Botox Injection for Chronic Anal Fissures
Jennifer Shearer, MDBrooke Gurland, MD, FACS
Stanford University School of Medicine

Most individuals associate anal pain with hemorrhoids. However, there are many conditions that can cause anal pain and bleeding, and physical examination helps to differentiate between these diagnoses: anal fissures, hemorrhoids, or infections.

An anal fissure is a superficial tear in the anoderm. Fissures are diagnosed clinically by history and physical exam with careful spreading of the anus and direct visualization of a break in the mucosa and exposed sphincter fibers. Increased tone of the internal anal sphincter can inhibit fissure healing by decreasing blood flow to the mucosa.

Conservative management includes stool softeners and warm sitz baths to avoid traumatizing the fissure with hard stools and relaxing the sphincters with warm water. Topical nitrates or calcium channel blockers applied at the anal verge dilate and relax the internal sphincter muscle to promote healing.

Alternatively, injection of Onobotulinumtoxin A into the fissure and intersphincteric groove paralyzes sphincter muscle, decreasing muscle spasm and supporting healing of the fissure. For individuals who fail these conservative therapies, lateral internal sphincterotomy is considered. This procedure involves dividing the internal sphincter muscles but carries a small risk of fecal incontinence.

This video article presents the case of a young adult male with a history of a chronic anal fissure, who failed medical management. Anal fissure was appreciated on exam and treated with Onobotulinumtoxin A injection for relaxation of anal sphincter.

PUBLISHED: Laparoscopic Low Anterior Resection with Diverting Loop Ileostomy for Rectal Cancer with Conversion to Open Approach

Laparoscopic Low Anterior Resection with Diverting Loop Ileostomy for Rectal Cancer with Conversion to Open Approach
Prabh R. Pannu, MDDavid Berger, MD
Massachusetts General Hospital

Laparoscopic low anterior resection (LAR) is a complex surgical procedure used for resecting the distal sigmoid colon or rectum while preserving sphincter function. The patient is a 37-year-old, obese male with rectal cancer.

Abdominal access is gained through four laparoscopic port sites. The omentum is freed from the transverse colon to enter the lesser sac. The splenic flexure and descending colon are mobilized from the retroperitoneum. The left colic artery is identified and divided. Following proximal mobilization, the dissection is carried towards the pelvis. The sigmoid colon is mobilized, and the presacral space is entered. The inferior mesenteric artery is divided between clips. The dissection in this case could not be carried down low enough in a laparoscopic fashion, and a lower midline incision was made. A suitable area on the descending colon is identified and the marginal artery divided. The proximal bowel is then divided with a stapler. A flexible colonoscope is then used to confirm tumor location and the rectum is divided below the tumor. Finally, a Baker type side-to-end anastomosis is performed with a powered EEA stapler, and its integrity verified endoscopically under water. A diverting loop ileostomy is then created at a previously marked site and the abdomen closed.

In this video, the surgical steps of this procedure are demonstrated and insight is provided into intraoperative decisions.

PUBLISHED: Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Paraesophageal Hiatal Hernia Repair with Fundoplication and Esophagogastroduodenoscopy

Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Paraesophageal Hiatal Hernia Repair with Fundoplication and Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
Hannah A. Bougleux Gomes, MD¹; Divyansh Agarwal, MD, PhD¹; Charu Paranjape¹’²
¹Massachusetts General Hospital/Brigham and Women’s Hospital
²Newton-Wellesley Hospital

A hiatal hernia occurs when part of an intra-abdominal organ, most commonly the stomach, migrates through the diaphragmatic crura. The condition can cause a range of uncomfortable symptoms, including heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing. While several individuals with a hiatal hernia can manage their symptoms with lifestyle changes and anti-reflux medications, some with refractory symptoms or complications secondary to the hernia require surgical treatment to repair the defect.

Here we present the case of a 60-year-old female with a paraoesophageal hiatal hernia and chronic gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD) refractory to proton-pump inhibitors (PPI), dietary changes, and lifestyle modifications. She underwent an elective robotic hiatal hernia repair, fundoplication, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) as a two-hour procedure with routine postprocedure recovery. This article and the associated video describe the pertinent history, evaluation, and operative steps of the procedure.