Periprosthetic humeral shaft fractures are increasing in incidence as shoulder replacements become more common. Surgical management of humeral shaft fractures can only be deemed appropriate when the degree of pain, the extent of disability, and the number of comorbid conditions are taken into consideration.
Among trauma surgeons there exists no preferred surgical approach to fractures of different segments of the humerus; however, the anterolateral approach to midshaft fractures is the most common although viable alternative approaches exist. In this case, we perform an open reduction and internal fixation of a diaphyseal periprosthetic humeral fracture with a posterior triceps sparing approach.
This case illustrates a midshaft femoral fracture with an ipsilateral subtrochanteric fracture that is repaired with a retrograde femoral intramedullary nail technique. The annual incidence of midshaft femur fractures is approximately 10 per 100,000 person-years (most commonly low-energy falls in elderly females). Generally, these patients will present with pain, inflammation, and shortening of the leg.
Retrograde femoral intramedullary nail placement is one of the most prevalent methods for treatment. It was initially discovered in 1970 and refined in 1995 to have improved surgery time, bleeding, and postoperative adverse outcomes. This procedure has proven to be particularly beneficial in obese and non-ambulatory patients, and those with multisystem injuries; it also has shown some benefit in pregnant women due to decreased pelvic radiation exposure.
This case presents a woman with a femoral shaft fracture and an ipsilateral subtrochanteric fracture. Given this patient’s multiple ipsilateral femur fractures, it was favorable to intervene with a retrograde femoral intramedullary nail. The procedure was done in a supine position due to favorable imaging throughout the operation.
Subtrochanteric femoral fractures commonly present in two different populations under very different circumstances. The elderly are commonly affected by low-energy events, such as a simple fall to the floor, while younger populations are more likely to be involved in high-energy events such as motor vehicle accidents. The majority of elderly injuries can be attributed to fragility fractures due to loss of bone density, but it is important to note an atypical fracture pattern that is present in those who have been taking bisphosphonates.
This video demonstrates an intramedullary fixation of a reverse oblique subtrochanteric femoral fracture in the lateral position. There is a classic deformity seen in subtrochanteric fractures due to strong muscular attachments in the region. In this video, we show that while the lateral position may be more difficult for obtaining x-rays, it provides natural external forces that make reduction and fixation easier.
Thumb Extensor Tendon Laceration Repair Evan Bloom1; Amir R. Kachooei, MD, PhD2; Asif M. Ilyas, MD, MBA, FACS1,2 1 Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University 2 Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University
This case consists of repairing an extensor tendon laceration of a thumb. Extensor tendon lacerations are one of the most common soft tissue injuries of the hand. Surgical repair of the tendon was offered, and the operation was performed using wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) technique.
Intraoperatively, a complete laceration of the extensor tendon was confirmed repaired using a modified Kessler technique and reinforced with an epitendinous repair. Before closure, the patient tested competency of the repair with confirmation of restoration with the active extension to ensure proper function. The patient was placed in a reverse thumb spica splint following wound closure.
Postoperatively, the patient was immobilized in full thumb extension for approximately two weeks and then converted to a removable splint and prescribed supervised hand therapy for a total recovery of 8–12 weeks.
Biceps Tenodesis for Distal Biceps Tendon Repair
Harish S. Appiakannan, BS¹; Amir R. Kachooei, MD, PhD²; Asif M. Ilyas, MD, MBA, FACS¹’² ¹Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University ²Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University
Distal biceps tendon ruptures can result in loss of supination and elbow flexion strength, for which surgical repair is often indicated to restore preinjury level of functionality. The distal biceps tendon can be repaired via single- or double-incision techniques using several associated implants, including endobuttons, suture anchors, or interference screws.
Here is the case of a middle-aged male presenting with an acute distal biceps tendon rupture. The tendon was repaired via a single-incision technique using an endobutton and an interference screw.
This video demonstrates an algorithm for evaluating suspected vascular injury secondary to penetrating extremity trauma on a 42-year-old man who sustained a gunshot wound to his left lower extremity. Descriptions of how to perform an arterial-brachial index (ABI) and arterial-pulse index (API) are reviewed, along with criteria to determine if a CT angiography is indicated. Relevant imaging is reviewed with a radiology resident with descriptions of how to systematically assess the scans for injury. Lastly, a tibial traction pin is placed as a temporizing measure for long bone fractures to prevent shortening and to help with pain management.
The patient in this case suffered an acute triceps tendon rupture and opted for surgical repair to restore function. His physical exam findings of tenderness at the olecranon and weakness against resistance during elbow extension, combined with plain film imaging revealing a positive fleck sign representing an avulsion the triceps tendon off of the olecranon, gave the diagnosis of acute triceps tendon rupture.
The patient underwent surgical repair under general anesthesia in lateral decubitus position with a sterile tourniquet applied for hemostasis. The treatment goal was re-approximating the distal triceps tendon to the olecranon in order to restore elbow extension strength and upper extremity function. The surgical technique demonstrated in this video is the suture bridge technique.
The goal of ankle fracture management is to restore a stable and congruent joint. Operative management is recommended for most displaced fractures, fractures with dislocations, and open fractures.
This video article walks through the surgical management of a 23-year-old male who sustained a trimalleolar ankle fracture with concomitant dislocation and syndesmotic injury following a motor vehicle collision. Dr. Weaver discusses the surgical landmarks and approaches to the ankle, the methods of fixing the malleoli and the syndesmosis, and common concerns that arise during the surgical management of ankle fractures.
Chaim Miller Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
In this case, Dr. Asif Ilyas at the Rothman Institute presents a zone 2 flexor tendon repair with a 4-0 Ethibond suture with a modified Kessler stitch that resulted in an 8-core strand repair. The procedure was done under wide awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) protocol, which among other strengths allows the surgeon to test the repair and set postrehabilitation expectations for the patient.
Michael J. Weaver, MD Associate Orthopaedic Surgeon, Brigham and Women’s Hospital Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School Brigham and Women’s Hospital
The patient in this case is an 81-year-old male with dementia who sustained an unwitnessed fall that resulted in a displaced intra-articular distal femur fracture. Here, Dr. Weaver at Brigham and Women’s Hospital repairs the fracture by performing an open reduction and internal fixation with a LISS plate. An anterolateral approach was used to visualize the joint surface and obtain an anatomic reduction of the articular surface, and a percutaneously-placed lateral lock plate was used to bridge the area of comminution while restoring length, alignment, and rotation to hopefully allow for biologic fixation that permits the bone to heal well.