Point of care cardiac ultrasound is a key diagnostic tool in evaluating any patient who is in extremis. Indications for a bedside cardiac ultrasound include cardiac arrest, unexplained hypotension, syncope, shortness of breath, chest pain, and altered mental status. There are no absolute contraindications for a limited bedside cardiac ultrasound. Point of care cardiac ultrasound mainly consists of four views: the parasternal long, parasternal short, apical four chamber, and subxiphoid views. Here, Dr. Peterson and Dr. Hafez at UChicago Medicine discuss image acquisition, pearls and pitfalls, and pathology for each of these views as an introduction to the bedside cardiac ultrasound.
This patient is a 38-year-old female who presented with fecal incontinence, constipation, and stress urinary incontinence. She was found to have stage II posterior vaginal wall prolapse. She desired definitive surgical management of her prolapse and opted for posterior vaginal repair. Although stress urinary incontinence was demonstrated on urodynamic testing, the decision was made not to proceed with concurrent midurethral sling given her history of pelvic floor dyssynergia and intermittent urinary retention. Here, Dr. Berkowitz and Dr. Hudson at MGH present and demonstrate a site-specific posterior colporrhaphy and perineorrhaphy.
Lauren Ott, PA-C Mass General Brigham – Newton-Wellesley Hospital Boston Hernia and Pilonidal Center Tufts University School of Medicine
In this article, Dr. Michael Reinhorn shows the case of a 51-year-old male who presented with left groin pain and a bulge in the area, worsened while straining or after a long day of physical activity. The patient underwent a mesh-free hernia repair performed via the four-layer Shouldice technique as a 50-minute ambulatory/day-surgery procedure. This article and the associated video describe the pertinent history, evaluation, and operative steps of the procedure.
This is the case of an 87-year-old female who presented with a history of constipation and bothersome rectal prolapse that required manual rectal prolapse reduction. She had minimal constipation and minimal incontinence, and anorectal manometry revealed low rectal pressures. On exam, she was found to have full-thickness rectal prolapse and stage II posterior vaginal wall pelvic organ prolapse. Gynecological POP-Q exam showed mostly posterior prolapse and some apical prolapse, and urodynamic testing was negative. Defacography revealed an enterocele. Here, Dr. Bordeianou and Dr. Von Bargen at MGH discuss the decision-making process when treating rectal prolapse and perform a laparoscopic suture rectopexy with culdoplasty, vaginal wall repair, and perineorrhaphy with levator plication.
Burn scar contracture of the dorsal foot causes metatarsophalangeal joint hyperextension and interphalangeal joint hyperextension. In children, these issues only intensify over time as a child grows. Here, Dr. Friedstat at Shriners Hospitals for Children in Boston presents the case of a young boy who suffered a 32% total body surface area flame burn to his lower back, bilateral buttocks, legs, and feet. This patient had previously undergone a bilateral contracture release of the dorsum of the foot. Because the contractures recurred, another bilateral dorsal foot scar contracture release was performed using a split-thickness 1:1 meshed skin graft harvested from the anterior left thigh.
Daniel Hashimoto; Ozanan R Meireles, MD; David Rattner, MD Massachusetts General Hospital
Impaired transit of food and liquid from the esophagus to the stomach results in symptoms of dysphagia, regurgitation, retrosternal fullness/pain, and weight loss. Symptoms can be managed with a range of medical or procedural therapy. However, the best results are obtained from surgical management with myotomy. Here, Drs. Rattner, Meireles, and Hashimoto at MGH perform and demonstrate a peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), which emerged as a less invasive manner through which to perform a myotomy and provides relief of dysphagia comparable to laparoscopic Heller myotomy – the current standard of surgical therapy for achalasia.
With improvement in both preoperative parathyroid tumor identification and the use of intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is now performed more frequently in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Still, many institutions are not familiar with performing MIP under regional or local anesthesia. Here, Dr. Tobias Carling presents an MIP performed under local cervical block anesthesia on a patient with pHPT and parathryoid adenoma.
1Duke University Medical Center 2College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University California
In this case, a patient with a symptomatic Zenker’s diverticulum is treated with an endoscopic staple-assisted diverticulotomy. The clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, surgical procedure, and postoperative care are highlighted.
Naomi Sell, MD, MHS Massachusetts General Hospital
Denise W. Gee, MD Operating Surgeon, MGH
The patient in this case is a 32-year-old female with recurrent episodes of biliary colic. An ultrasound revealed numerous gallstones within the gallbladder. Because the patient has had recurrent symptoms for the past six months, surgical removal of her gallbladder was the best option to relieve her recurrent pain and prevent future development of acute cholecystitis. Here, Dr. Denise Gee at Massachusetts General Hospital performs a laparoscopic cholecystectomy to remove the patient’s gallbladder.
M. Grant Liska, BS University of Central Florida College of Medicine
Asif M. Ilyas, MD, MBA, FACS Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University
Dr. Asif Ilyas at the Rothman Institute presents the case of a proximal pole scaphoid fracture repaired with ORIF via a dorsal approach. After dissection through the joint capsule and exposure of the base of the scaphoid, a headless compression screw is placed anterograde in line with the thumb in all planes. This procedure provides increased stability and improved rate of the union in correlation with the accuracy of intraoperative reduction, leading to improved outcomes for surgical candidates over more conservative approaches.