Laparoscopic Low Anterior Resection with Diverting Loop Ileostomy for Rectal Cancer with Conversion to Open Approach
; Massachusetts General Hospital
Laparoscopic low anterior resection (LAR) is a complex surgical procedure used for resecting the distal sigmoid colon or rectum while preserving sphincter function. The patient is a 37-year-old, obese male with rectal cancer.
Abdominal access is gained through four laparoscopic port sites. The omentum is freed from the transverse colon to enter the lesser sac. The splenic flexure and descending colon are mobilized from the retroperitoneum. The left colic artery is identified and divided. Following proximal mobilization, the dissection is carried towards the pelvis. The sigmoid colon is mobilized, and the presacral space is entered. The inferior mesenteric artery is divided between clips. The dissection in this case could not be carried down low enough in a laparoscopic fashion, and a lower midline incision was made. A suitable area on the descending colon is identified and the marginal artery divided. The proximal bowel is then divided with a stapler. A flexible colonoscope is then used to confirm tumor location and the rectum is divided below the tumor. Finally, a Baker type side-to-end anastomosis is performed with a powered EEA stapler, and its integrity verified endoscopically under water. A diverting loop ileostomy is then created at a previously marked site and the abdomen closed.
In this video, the surgical steps of this procedure are demonstrated and insight is provided into intraoperative decisions.
Anterior Skull Base Resection of Esthesioneuroblastoma (Endoscopic)
David W. Jang, MD¹; Ali R. Zomorodi, MD¹; Feras Ackall, MD¹; Josef Madrigal, BS²; C. Scott Brown, MD¹
¹Duke University Medical Center
²David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles
First described by Berger in 1924, esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) remains a rare sinonasal tumor believed to originate from specialized sensory olfactory cells. To date, the literature includes 1,000 recorded cases of ENB. Patients with ENB often present with non-specific symptoms, most often chronic nasal obstruction or epistaxis. Careful examination may reveal a pink or brown polyploid mass in the nasal cavity. Overall, ENB may demonstrate various growth patterns ranging from slow, indolent progression to aggressive invasion with widespread metastasis.
Current literature indicates that ENB should be treated with a combination of surgical resection and postoperative radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. However, significant controversy remains regarding the appropriate surgical approach. This video demonstrates a transnasal endoscopic approach, which has gained significant popularity over the previous two decades compared to classic “open” approaches. Although this approach demonstrates improved perioperative outcomes while still achieving oncologic margins, further work is required to evaluate long-term survival.
Wedge Resection of the Lung and Thymectomy by Thoracoscopy
Massachusetts General Hospital
Henning A. Gaissert, MD
Lucia Madariaga, MD
Visiting Surgeon, MGH & Associate Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School
Fellow in Thoracic Surgery, MGH
A patient with myasthenia gravis undergoes a procedure meant to originally be a lobectomy and thymectomy. Henning Gaissert, MD decides to do a lobe wedge resection instead given the tumor’s positioning and carcinoid nature before proceeding with the thymectomy. Please note that the patient had to return to the OR the following day due to bleeding near the internal mammary vein.
Massachusetts General Hospital
Richard Hodin, M.D.
Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School
After visiting an endocrinologist who diagnosed her with aldosteronism, the patient takes a CT scan that reveals a 8mm nodule in the left adrenal gland. Dr. Hodin performs a laparoscopic adrenalectomy to remove it.