Laparoscopic Sigmoid Resection for Diverticulitis
Massachusetts General Hospital
Laparoscopic sigmoid resection is indicated for disease of the distal sigmoid or rectum that requires resection, most notably diverticulitis and colorectal cancer. Here, we perform a sigmoid resection for diverticular disease. In this procedure, we used four laparoscopic port sites.
In the first step, we mobilized the splenic flexure and left colon to allow for a tension-free colorectal anastomosis low in the pelvis. Second, the mesorectum was dissected to mobilize the rectum down to the level of the pelvic floor. Third, the left colic and inferior mesenteric arteries were ligated, the colonic mesentery was transected with an energy device, and the distal resection margin was stapled intracorporeally. Fourth, the specimen was extracorporealized through the umbilical port site, and the proximal transection was performed. Finally, an anvil was inserted, and the colon was placed back into the abdomen where a trans-anal, stapled end-to-side Baker-type anastomosis was performed and endoscopically tested for leaks.
Open Cholecystectomy for Gallstone Disease
World Surgical Foundation
Gallstone disease is one of the most common disorders affecting the digestive tract. Most individuals with gallstones are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. For symptomatic patients, however, cholecystectomy is recommended.
Cholecystectomy is one of the most common abdominal surgeries performed worldwide. Indications include moderate-to-severe symptoms, stones obstructing the bile duct, gallbladder inflammation, large gallbladder polyps, and pancreatic inflammation due to gallstones.
Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old male with stones in his biliary duct. Despite having uncomplicated disease, the patient was treated with a primary open cholecystectomy because laparoscopy was not available.
Laparoscopic Low Anterior Resection with Diverting Loop Ileostomy for Rectal Cancer with Conversion to Open Approach
; Massachusetts General Hospital
Laparoscopic low anterior resection (LAR) is a complex surgical procedure used for resecting the distal sigmoid colon or rectum while preserving sphincter function. The patient is a 37-year-old, obese male with rectal cancer.
Abdominal access is gained through four laparoscopic port sites. The omentum is freed from the transverse colon to enter the lesser sac. The splenic flexure and descending colon are mobilized from the retroperitoneum. The left colic artery is identified and divided. Following proximal mobilization, the dissection is carried towards the pelvis. The sigmoid colon is mobilized, and the presacral space is entered. The inferior mesenteric artery is divided between clips. The dissection in this case could not be carried down low enough in a laparoscopic fashion, and a lower midline incision was made. A suitable area on the descending colon is identified and the marginal artery divided. The proximal bowel is then divided with a stapler. A flexible colonoscope is then used to confirm tumor location and the rectum is divided below the tumor. Finally, a Baker type side-to-end anastomosis is performed with a powered EEA stapler, and its integrity verified endoscopically under water. A diverting loop ileostomy is then created at a previously marked site and the abdomen closed.
In this video, the surgical steps of this procedure are demonstrated and insight is provided into intraoperative decisions.
Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Paraesophageal Hiatal Hernia Repair with Fundoplication and Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
Hannah A. Bougleux Gomes, MD¹; Divyansh Agarwal, MD, PhD¹; Charu Paranjape¹’²
¹Massachusetts General Hospital/Brigham and Women’s Hospital
A hiatal hernia occurs when part of an intra-abdominal organ, most commonly the stomach, migrates through the diaphragmatic crura. The condition can cause a range of uncomfortable symptoms, including heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing. While several individuals with a hiatal hernia can manage their symptoms with lifestyle changes and anti-reflux medications, some with refractory symptoms or complications secondary to the hernia require surgical treatment to repair the defect.
Here we present the case of a 60-year-old female with a paraoesophageal hiatal hernia and chronic gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD) refractory to proton-pump inhibitors (PPI), dietary changes, and lifestyle modifications. She underwent an elective robotic hiatal hernia repair, fundoplication, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) as a two-hour procedure with routine postprocedure recovery. This article and the associated video describe the pertinent history, evaluation, and operative steps of the procedure.
M. Grant Liska, BS¹; Marcus Lester R. Suntay, MD, FPCS, FPSPS, FPALES²
¹University of Central Florida College of Medicine
²Philippine Children’s Medical Center
Fistula-in-ano is a chronic abnormal communication between the anal canal and, usually, the perianal skin. It can be described as a hollow tract that is lined with granulation tissue and connects a primary opening inside the anal canal to a secondary opening in the perianal skin. It usually originates from the anal glands and is frequently the result of a previous anal abscess. Anal fistulae present with pain, swelling, pruritus, skin irritation, and purulent or bloody drainage. Most anal fistulae are diagnosed based on clinical findings, but complex and deep anal fistulae usually require imaging studies such as CT scan or MRI to delineate the tract.
Currently, there is no medical treatment available and surgery is almost always necessary. A simple intersphincteric fistula can often be treated with fistulotomy or fistulectomy, while trans-sphincteric and suprasphincteric fistulae are treated by placement of a seton to maintain drainage and induce fibrosis. Extrasphincteric fistula treatment depends on the anatomy and etiology of the fistula.
This article presents the case of a 1-year-old male with a history of recurrent perianal infection, which led to the development of an anal fistula. The anal fistula was noted to be superficial, and a fistulotomy was performed.
Anterior Component Separation for Multiple Incisional Hernias Along an Upper Midline Incision
Prabh R. Pannu, MD; David Berger, MD
Massachusetts General Hospital
Anterior component separation is an abdominal wall reconstruction technique used in the repair of ventral wall defects to avoid the use of prosthetic mesh. The procedure releases the external oblique fascia to provide a tension-free midline approximation.
The patient is a 72-year-old, obese female who has multiple large incisional hernias along an upper midline incision. An anterior component separation technique is used to repair the defect.
An incision is made over the previous abdominal scar. The dissection is carried down to the hernia sac. The hernia sac is then separated from the surrounding tissue to identify the fascial edges. The hernia sacs are removed from the fascia. Surrounding adhesions are lysed. A colotomy occurred, which was repaired in two layers: the outer layer with interrupted 3-0 silk suture, and the inner layer with running 3-0 Vicryl suture. The fascial incision is extended to ensure complete removal of the hernia sacs along with completion of adhesiolysis. Bilateral subcutaneous flaps separating the subcutaneous fascia from the external oblique fascia are developed. Perforating vessels are ligated with 2-0 or 3-0 silk. The dissection is carried laterally to the anterior axillary line. The external oblique fascia is released bilaterally using electrocautery. The midline defect is then closed with running #1 Prolene. After achieving hemostasis, two drains are placed, and the skin is closed.
Left Laparoscopic Transperitoneal Adrenalectomy for Aldosteronoma
Richard Hodin, MD
Massachusetts General Hospital
Unilateral aldosteronoma is best managed by adrenalectomy, with the laparoscopic approach being the preferred method. This is the case of a 48-year-old woman who had long-standing hypertension and hypokalemia and was found to have hyperaldosteronism and low renin levels. A CT scan showed a small mass in the left adrenal gland, and adrenal vein sampling showed higher levels of aldosterone on the left side than on the right, confirming a unilateral aldosteronoma.
Laparoscopic access was gained, the adrenal gland was exposed and dissected by controlling the periadrenal tissues with the harmonic scalpel, the adrenal vein was then ligated, and the adrenal gland was removed.
Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication
Ciro Andolfi, MD¹; Marco Fisichella, MD, MBA, FACS²
¹University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine
²VA Boston Healthcare System
This is the case of a 63-year-old man with a long-standing history of gastroesophageal reflux disease, refractory to medical management with high-dose proton pump inhibitors and H2-blockers. The preoperative workup consisted of: 1) an upper endoscopy, which was normal; 2) a barium swallow, which showed a normal anatomy (no hiatal hernia or diverticula); and 3) esophageal function tests, including high-resolution esophageal manometry, which showed normal peristalsis, and 24-hour pH monitoring, which confirmed the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Considering the amount of pathologic reflux, and the normal anatomy and esophageal peristalsis, it was decided to proceed with a laparoscopic Nissen (360°/total) fundoplication. The operation went well and lasted less than 90 minutes. The patient was discharged the following morning after resuming a light diet, and recovered quickly. With this surgical approach, complete control of reflux was achieved, and the patient was able to discontinue his treatment with proton pump inhibitors.
Laparoscopic Total Abdominal Colectomy with Ileorectal Anastomosis for Crohn’s Colitis and Multifocal Dysplasia
Winta T. Mehtsun, MD, MPH; Richard Hodin, MD
Massachusetts General Hospital
Crohn’s disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that can chronically affect the entire gastrointestinal tract, with a propensity for the distal ileum. It causes transmural inflammation of the intestines, where it can cause abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and malnutrition.
There is no cure for Crohn’s disease; the goal of treatment is to palliate symptoms, accomplished with both medical and surgical options. Surgery is generally reserved for patients who are unresponsive to aggressive medical therapy or those who develop complications.
Here, we present the case of a 59-year-old male with chronic gastrointestinal problems thought to be Crohn’s colitis. Colonoscopy with biopsy of multiple areas showed dysplasia, prompting surgical resection. In this case, the entire colon was affected with rectal sparing; therefore, a total abdominal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis was performed.
Robotic Right Hemicolectomy for Tubulovillous Adenoma with High-Grade Dysplasia: Multimedia Analysis of a Contemporary Technique
Christopher L. Kalmar, MD; Caleb L. Cutherell, MD; Farrell C. Adkins, MD
Virginia Tech Carilion
Robotic right hemicolectomy is a minimally invasive technique for right colon resections. The technique utilizes a robotic laparoscopic instrument to perform dissection of the right colon and to perform intracorporeal anastomoses, allowing for smaller abdominal incisions, quicker recovery times, and decreased short- and long-term complications.
In this case, a robotic right hemicolectomy was performed to remove an endoscopically unresectable mass at the ileocecal valve. An intracorporeal-stapled ileocolic anastomosis was performed, and the colon was removed through a trocar insertion site. The robotic-assisted minimally invasive technique allows for clear visualization of the dissection planes and facilitates intracorporeal anastomoses that would otherwise be difficult to perform using traditional laparoscopy.