Tag Archives: cholecystectomy

PUBLISHED: Laparoscopic Subtotal Fenestrating Cholecystectomy in a Cirrhotic Patient

Laparoscopic Subtotal Fenestrating Cholecystectomy in a Cirrhotic Patient
Rachel M. Schneider, MPH; Nicole B. Cherng, MD
UMass Memorial Medical Center

In patients with difficult gallbladders due to anatomy prohibiting a clear critical view of safety, a subtotal cholecystectomy can be considered as a safer alternative to a total cholecystectomy. Subtotal cholecystectomies can be divided into “reconstituting” or “fenestrating.” Subtotal reconstituting cholecystectomies include closing off the lower end of the gallbladder to create a remnant gallbladder, while subtotal fenestrating cholecystectomies do not occlude the gallbladder and instead may involve suturing the cystic duct. The most common indication for subtotal fenestrating cholecystectomy is inflammation in the hepatocystic triangle, and subtotal fenestrating cholecystectomy has proven to be useful specifically for patients with a history of cirrhosis.

This case report describes the performance of a subtotal fenestrating cholecystectomy for the management of acute on chronic cholecystitis in a patient with cirrhosis initially managed with transcystic stent placement endoscopically. Management of this patient’s omental adhesions to the gallbladder required alterations to typical surgical technique, which will be described in this report. Additionally, the indications for subtotal fenestrating cholecystectomy will be discussed alongside the benefit of this technique to specific patient populations presenting with acute on chronic cholecystitis.

PUBLISHED: Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Interval Cholecystectomy

Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Interval Cholecystectomy
Chloe A. Warehall, MD1Divyansh Agarwal, MD, PhD1Charu Paranjape, MD, FACS1,2
1Massachusetts General Hospital
2Newton-Wellesley Hospital

Acute cholecystitis occurs when gallstones become impacted in the neck of the gallbladder or cystic duct in approximately 90–95% of cases. Symptoms may include acute right upper quadrant pain, fever, nausea, and emesis often associated with eating. Acute cholecystitis generally has imaging findings of gallbladder wall thickening, edema, gallbladder distension, pericholecystic fluid, and positive sonographic Murphy sign. However, acute cholecystitis is largely a clinical diagnosis of persistent right upper quadrant (RUQ) pain and associated tenderness on palpation of the RUQ in the setting of gallstones.

The standard treatment is a cholecystectomy to prevent recurrent cholecystitis or sequelae of gallstones. Timing of the cholecystectomy is dependent on length of symptoms, which reflect the degree of inflammation.  This is the case of a 74-year-old male who presented with six days of acute cholecystitis symptoms who was initially managed with antibiotics. After improvement of his pain and no systemic symptoms of infection, he underwent an interval robotic cholecystectomy. This article and the associated video describe the pertinent history, evaluation, and operative steps of the procedure.

PUBLISHED: Open Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Disease

Open Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Disease
Jacob C. Mesiti1Yoko Young Sang, MD2Peter F. Rovito, MD2;
1Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine
2World Surgical Foundation

Gallbladder diseases are a subset of a spectrum of pathologies of the biliary system and are a particularly common etiology of abdominal pain encountered in modern medicine. These pathologies most often share a similar underlying mechanism of disease: obstruction of a portion of the biliary tree by cholelithiasis, or gallstones.

Gallstones, for the most part, form initially in the gallbladder with the exception of primary common bile duct (CBD) stones that form primarily in the CBD. Risk factors include a wide variety of conditions both pathologic and physiologic, including hyperlipidemia, hemolysis, and pregnancy. The resulting obstruction creates a state of biliary stasis, eventually leading to inflammation, pain, and an increased risk of infection. The anatomical location of the obstruction contributes greatly to both the clinical presentation and the ultimate treatment of the disease.

A hallmark of the treatment of gallbladder disease, ranging from simple biliary colic to life-threatening emphysematous cholecystitis, is the cholecystectomy. In modernized countries, this procedure is almost invariably performed laparoscopically. However, in certain clinical scenarios, such as when a patient cannot tolerate the pneumoperitoneum associated with laparoscopic surgery or when the procedure takes place in a developing country with limited access to laparoscopic capabilities, an open approach is preferred.

PUBLISHED: Open Cholecystectomy for Gallstone Disease

Open Cholecystectomy for Gallstone Disease
Liborio “Jun” Soledad, MDEnrico Jayma, MDTed Carpio, MD
World Surgical Foundation

Gallstone disease is one of the most common disorders affecting the digestive tract. Most individuals with gallstones are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. For symptomatic patients, however, cholecystectomy is recommended.

Cholecystectomy is one of the most common abdominal surgeries performed worldwide. Indications include moderate-to-severe symptoms, stones obstructing the bile duct, gallbladder inflammation, large gallbladder polyps, and pancreatic inflammation due to gallstones.

Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old male with stones in his biliary duct. Despite having uncomplicated disease, the patient was treated with a primary open cholecystectomy because laparoscopy was not available.

PREPRINT RELEASE: Open Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Disease

Open Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Disease
Hospital Leonardo Martinez, Honduras

Peter F. Rovito, MD
General Surgeon
World Surgical Foundation

Yoko Young Sang, MD
Resident Physician
World Surgical Foundation

The patient in this case is a 50-year-old male with a long history of gallbladder disease. Here, Dr. Rovito performs an open cholecystectomy on this patient during a surgical mission in Honduras with the World Surgical Foundation.

PREPRINT RELEASE: Open Cholecystectomy

Open Cholecystectomy
Romblon Provincial Hospital

Liborio “June” Soledad, MD
World Surgical Foundation

Enrico Jayma, MD
World Surgical Foundation

Ted Carpio, MD
World Surgical Foundation

The patient in this case is a 53-year-old male with a 1-year history of recurrent right upper quadrant pain that radiates to the back. On workup, ultrasound revealed intraluminal gallstones. Here, Dr. Soledad, Dr. Jayma, and Dr. Carpio perform an open cholecystectomy on this patient while on a surgical mission to the Philippines with the World Surgical Foundation.

PREPRINT RELEASE: Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Massachusetts General Hospital

Denise W. Gee, MD
Assistant Professor of Surgery
Harvard Medical School

A female patient presented with a few months of abdominal pain following the eating of fatty foods. Imaging showed gallbladder sludge, small stones, or potentially a polyp. Here, Dr. Denise W. Gee performs a laparoscopic cholecystectomy to alleviate these symptoms. #MGH #generalsurgery #gallbladder #cholecystectomy