The spleen is highly vascular, is the largest secondary lymphoid organ, and is the most commonly injured organ in the setting of blunt abdominal trauma. Patients may present asymptomatically or with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, or signs of hemodynamic instability. Although many splenic injuries caused by blunt abdominal trauma may be managed conservatively, free intra-abdominal fluid with hemodynamic instability warrant surgical management in the form of exploratory laparotomy and splenectomy.
This video report demonstrates the management of a patient who was assaulted, sustaining blunt abdominal trauma and a hemodynamically significant grade IV splenic laceration. An exploratory laparotomy and splenectomy were performed.
Gunshot wounds to the abdomen are one of the most classic trauma cases a surgeon will come across in their career. The high velocity of a bullet can cause massive internal and external trauma to the abdomen. Exploration of the small bowel using laparotomy is often indicated after a penetrating traumatic injury or when peritoneal signs are present.
This video article shows the most common techniques for performing an exploratory laparotomy. In this case, the abdomen was explored and was revealed to show a through-and-through gunshot wound to the jejunum, as well as a partial-thickness tear of the proximal cecum; the abdomen was explored for any smaller bleeds or leaks, and the abdomen was closed.
This video demonstrates an algorithm for evaluating suspected vascular injury secondary to penetrating extremity trauma on a 42-year-old man who sustained a gunshot wound to his left lower extremity. Descriptions of how to perform an arterial-brachial index (ABI) and arterial-pulse index (API) are reviewed, along with criteria to determine if a CT angiography is indicated. Relevant imaging is reviewed with a radiology resident with descriptions of how to systematically assess the scans for injury. Lastly, a tibial traction pin is placed as a temporizing measure for long bone fractures to prevent shortening and to help with pain management.
Point of care cardiac ultrasound is a key diagnostic tool in evaluating any patient who is in extremis. Indications for a bedside cardiac ultrasound include cardiac arrest, unexplained hypotension, syncope, shortness of breath, chest pain, and altered mental status. There are no absolute contraindications for a limited bedside cardiac ultrasound. Point of care cardiac ultrasound mainly consists of four views: the parasternal long, parasternal short, apical four chamber, and subxiphoid views. Here, Dr. Peterson and Dr. Hafez at UChicago Medicine discuss image acquisition, pearls and pitfalls, and pathology for each of these views as an introduction to the bedside cardiac ultrasound.
Dany Accilien, MD Emergency Medicine Resident The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine
Dexter C. Graves, MD Emergency Medicine Resident The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine
Nicholas Ludmer, MD Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine
Stephen Estime, MD Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology and Critical Care The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine
Abdullah Hasan Pratt, MD Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine
In this video, Dr. Pratt goes over airway management techniques in trauma resuscitation. It outlines the preparation and equipment used in patients with impending airway failure that require manual or mechanical ventilation. Also discussed are the innovative airway towers used in the University of Chicago emergency room as well as the general approach to airway management. The different types of laryngoscopy, assist devices, and cricothyroidotomy surgical airway procedures are also presented.
Daven Patel, MD, MPH Resident Physician Emergency Medicine
Kristin Lewis, MD, MA Resident Physician Emergency Medicine
Allyson Peterson, MD Resident Physician Emergency Medicine
Nadim Michael Hafez, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine Emergency Medicine
This video covers information related to the FAST exam, which evaluates the pericardial, hepatorenal, splenorenal, and suprapubic regions for free fluid in a trauma patient as well as the extended version, which includes an additional evaluation of the pleural spaces for a pneumothorax. It goes through probe selection, probe placement and image acquisition, image optimization, and pitfalls and pearls for the subxiphoid/subcostal, right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, suprapubic, and pleural views.
Laura Celmins, PharmD, BCPS, BCCCP Clinical Pharmacy Specialist Emergency Medicine
In this video, Laura Celmins, a clinical pharmacist in the emergency department at UChicago Medicine, discusses rapid sequence intubation (RSI) medications as part of the airway management for trauma patients.
Priya Prakash, MD Assistant Professor of Surgery Trauma, Critical Care, and Emergency Surgery UChicago Medicine
The patient in this case is a 17-year-old male who presented in stable condition with a minor, superficial, perforating saber wound. In this video article, Dr. Priya Prakash at UChicago Medicine demonstrates a trauma resuscitation and removes the saber.