Cochlear Implant C. Scott Brown, MD; Calhoun D. Cunningham III, MD Duke University Medical Center
For patients who present with bilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss who have little-to-no benefit from conventional hearing aids, cochlear implants can restore hearing by directly stimulating the cochlear nerve.
This video demonstrates the placement of a cochlear implant. A standard mastoidectomy and facial recess approach is performed to visualize the round window niche and membrane. The round window membrane is opened, and the cochlear implant electrode is carefully inserted into the scala tympani. After several weeks, the patient returns for implant activation with a dedicated team of audiologists.
Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulator Russel Kahmke, MD1; Adam Honeybrook, MBBS1; Clayton Wyland2; C. Scott Brown, MD1 1 Department of Head and Neck Surgery & Communication Sciences, Duke University Medical Center 2 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition with several effective treatment strategies centered around relieving airway obstruction. The gold standard for OSA treatment remains continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but other options exist.
A recent therapy developed within the past decade utilizes hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) through a surgically implanted device. As the patient inspires, the device sends an electrical impulse similar to a cardiac pacemaker. The impulse activates targeted branches of the hypoglossal nerve, leading to stimulation of muscles that protrude the tongue and open the airway posteriorly. This mechanism has been shown to reduce airway obstruction by activating these muscles during inspiration.
Along with detailing the chronological order of events, this case outlines various complex anatomical structures that are identified in order to safely and effectively implant the hypoglossal nerve stimulator.
First described by Berger in 1924, esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) remains a rare sinonasal tumor believed to originate from specialized sensory olfactory cells. To date, the literature includes 1,000 recorded cases of ENB. Patients with ENB often present with non-specific symptoms, most often chronic nasal obstruction or epistaxis. Careful examination may reveal a pink or brown polyploid mass in the nasal cavity. Overall, ENB may demonstrate various growth patterns ranging from slow, indolent progression to aggressive invasion with widespread metastasis.
Current literature indicates that ENB should be treated with a combination of surgical resection and postoperative radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. However, significant controversy remains regarding the appropriate surgical approach. This video demonstrates a transnasal endoscopic approach, which has gained significant popularity over the previous two decades compared to classic “open” approaches. Although this approach demonstrates improved perioperative outcomes while still achieving oncologic margins, further work is required to evaluate long-term survival.
Otosclerosis can lead to progressive conductive hearing loss, significantly affecting quality of life. For patients who choose surgery, the tympanic membrane is elevated, and the middle ear space is explored. If the surgeon confirms that the stapes is fixed in the oval window, either a stapedotomy or stapedectomy can be performed.
In the stapedotomy, the surgeon removes the stapes superstructure, creates a fenestration in the footplate, and places a prosthesis from the incus through the fenestration into the vestibule. In this instance, the patient was able to regain nearly all of the hearing that had been lost as a result of stapes fixation.
Endolymphatic sac (ELS) decompression can be performed for patients with Meniere’s disease who have failed conservative treatment such as dietary changes and medical therapy. The full pathophysiological mechanisms that result in Meniere’s disease are not entirely understood. The variation in techniques for performing ELS decompression support this; there is no concrete data to justify one approach over another. Regardless, in the correct patient, ELS decompression can significantly alleviate the patient’s symptoms. To do so, a mastoidectomy is performed to expose the bony labyrinth as well as the bone overlying the sigmoid sinus. Decompression of the sac can be accomplished by removing overlying bone, incising the dura, or stenting the dura open.
Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) is associated with conductive hearing loss, autophony, and pressure/sound induced vertigo. Patients who are symptomatic may elect to undergo surgical intervention.
Here, Dr. Kaylie demonstrates the transmastoid approach to repairing SSCD. This approach affords the opportunity for an outpatient procedure to expose and plug the canal around the defect.
Charles R. Woodard, MD¹; Alexandra L. Elder, BS²; Helen A. Moses, MD¹; C. Scott Brown, MD¹ ¹Duke University Medical Center ²Thomas Jefferson University
Botox injection is one of the most common cosmetic procedures performed. Botox temporarily paralyzes targeted skeletal muscles of the face, reducing the patient’s ability to produce unwanted dynamic wrinkles. Commonly treated areas of the face include the procerus and corrugator supercilii muscles to treat glabellar frown lines, the frontalis muscle to treat horizontal rhytids of the forehead, and the orbicularis oculi muscle to treat “crow’s feet” wrinkles along the lateral aspect of the orbit.
A thorough facial analysis is necessary to develop a treatment plan for each problem area, particularly by engaging the patient to determine what his or her goals for treatment are. Providers must take care when injecting into the face to avoid complications of overtreatment, such as brow ptosis from over-injecting the forehead or elevated brow from over-injecting the periorbital muscles.
Eustachian tube dysfunction can often cause otitis media, tympanic membrane perforation, or conductive hearing loss. In this video article, myringoplasty was performed using a CO2 laser that provided reorganization of collagen fibers and improved compliance of the tympanic membrane. Given the ongoing eustachian tube dysfunction, a pressure equalization tube was placed to prevent recurrent retraction and atelectasis of the eardrum.
In this video, Dr. Scott Brown performs an endoscopic stapedectomy for the treatment of conductive hearing loss. He explains his technique and the advantages afforded by adoption of the endoscope in ear surgery.
Bone conduction implants can improve hearing in patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss as well as in cases of single-sided deafness (SSD). The patient in this case previously underwent resection of a vestibular schwannoma via a middle fossa craniotomy that ultimately resulted in SSD. Here, Dr. Kaylie at Duke University Medical Center demonstrates the step-by-step surgical technique for the Bonebridge implant to allow sound transmission from the patient’s deaf ear to the contralateral cochlea via bone conduction.